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Invertebrate Zoology OnLine 
Richard Fox,
 
Lander University

Laboratory Exercises to Accompany

Ruppert EE, Fox RS, Barnes RB. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology, A Functional Evolutionary Approach, 7 th ed. Brooks Cole Thomson, Belmont, CA. 963 pp.

This OnLine laboratory manual  features original anatomical descriptions of 112 species for use in invertebrate zoology teaching or research laboratories in North America. The collection was prepared over a period of many years to facilitate and encourage the study of invertebrate animals.  It is a smorgasbord of species intended to provide a selection suitable for courses taught in most parts of North America. Many species,  or their close relatives, also occur in other parts of the world, especially Europe.  Although the chapters are written in laboratory manual format, they can also be used to support research or in other non-teaching situations as introductions to the anatomy of specific invertebrates .

Most of these descriptions are based on dissections of invertebrate animals collected in the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, Maine, and Oregon beginning in 1980. A few are based on preserved material or commercially prepared slides. The collection is under ongoing revision and new species are added periodically.  The collection is sufficiently diverse to support undergraduate or graduate courses at most localities in North America. 

The anatomical descriptions are presented as laboratory exercises, many of which have been tested by my students in invertebrate zoology courses at Lander University, the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, and the Duke University Marine Laboratory. These have benefited from numerous revisions based on many years of student use.

Emphasis is placed on the use of living anesthetized or freshly sacrificed, unpreserved specimens. Where possible species have been chosen that are readily available inexpensively and alive from supermarkets, bait shops, or seafood markets. Whenever possible  exotic (introduced) or commercially farmed species have been used in preference to natives.

Black and white line drawings are embedded in the texts.  Unless otherwise indicated the  illustrations are original. 

These accounts are copyrighted but unpublished. I would appreciate their receiving the same copyright considerations they would enjoy in print. You are encouraged to use them for your research or teaching but not for publication or commercial purposes.  I appreciate being informed and acknowledged when the exercises are used.  Email me at rsfox@lander.edu.

Terminology, phylogeny, and classification conform to usage in Ruppert EE, Fox RS, Barnes RB. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology, A functional evolutionary approach, 7th ed. Brooks Cole/Thomson, Belmont, CA. 963 pp + index. Page and chapter numbers in the following Table of Contents refer to this text. Pertinent figures from the text are indicated by callouts in the lab exercises.  In keeping with the incompatibility of Linnean categories with cladistics-based phylogeny, the use of those categories has been minimized, as it is in the aforementioned text.  For the benefit of those more comfortable with Linnean classifications, the traditional categories are indicated by superscript abbreviations (e.g. P = phylum, C = class, O = order, F = family, i = infra, s = sub, S = super) following the taxon name.

Table of Contents


Miscellaneous 
Introduction 
Laboratory Techniques    
Supplies and Recipes   
Glossary  

Alphabetical List of all Invertebrates Anatomy

Chapter 3. Protozoa, page 22 
Protozoa  


Chapter 5. Porifera , page 77 
Porifera 
 sponges


Chapter 7. Cnidaria, page 111 
Anthozoa, page 124 
Aiptasia 
anemone 
Metridium 
anemone 
Scyphozoa, page 148 
Aurelia 
moon jellyfish   
Cassiopeia 
upside down jellyfish 
Hydrozoa, page 156 
Obelia 
hydroid 
Gonionemus 
hydromedusa

Hydra hydra

Velella by-the-wind sailor

Chapter 8. Ctenophora, page 183 
Pleurobrachia 
comb jelly  


Chapter 10. Platyhelminthes, page 225 
Turbellaria , page 227 
Dugesia   planaria 
Trematoda page 251 
Opisthorchis  
 fluke 
Cestoda page 258 
Taenia  
 tapeworm


Chapter 11. Nemertea, page 270 
Heteronemertea 
Cerebratulus ribbonworm 
Hoplonemertea 
Tetrastemma ribbonworm   


Chapter 12. Mollusca, page 283 
Polyplacophora, page 292 
Katharina chiton


Gastropoda, page 300 
Archaeogastropoda 
Diodora keyhole limpet   
Tectura   
 true limpet    

Mesogastropoda 
Littorina 
periwinkle   
Pomacea 
apple snail 
Bellamya 
mystery snail 

Neogastropoda 
Busycon and Buccinum
 whelks 
Ilyanassa 
mud snail 

Opisthobranchia 
Aplysia   
 sea hare     
Tridachia 
sacoglossan

Pulmonata 
Helix 
garden snail 
Limax 
terrestrial slug 

Cephalopoda, page 343 
Lolliguncula  
 squid 

Bivalvia, page 367 
Mytilus 
blue mussel 
Argopecten and Placopecten
 scallops 
Crassostrea American oyster 
Actinonaias 
freshwater mussel
 
Mercenaria 
quahog 
Corbicula Asian clam 
Sphaerium fingernail clam


Chapter 13. Annelida, page 413 
Polychaeta, page 422 
Nereis 
clamworm   
Glycera 
bloodworm   
Eudistylia fan worm 
Serpula feather duster worm
 
Myzostoma 
crinoid commensal 

Oligochaeta, page 459 
Lumbricus 
earthworm 

Euhirudinea, page 471 
Haemopis  
 and Hirudo leech


Chapter 14. Sipuncula, page 495 
Phascolopsis  
 peanut worm 
Sipunculus  
 peanut worm


Chapter 15. Onychophora and Tardigrada 
Peripatus velvet worm 
 


Chapter 17. Trilobitomorpha, page 543 
Elrathia trilobite 
Triarthrus   trilobite


Chapter 18. Chelicerata, page 554 
Xiphosura
 , page 555 
Limulus  
 horseshoe crab 
Scorpiones,
 page 564 
Vaejovis  
 Carolina scorpion    

Uropygi, page 569 
Thelyphonus 
whip Scorpion   
Aranae,
 page 571 
Argiope  
 garden spider   
Pseudoscorpiones,   page 584         
Novobisium 
pseudoscorpion 
Solifugae,
 page 586 
Ammotrechella 
 wind spider 

Opiliones, page 588 
Leiobunum  harvestman 
Acari,
 page 590 
Dermacentor 
tick 
Pycnogonida,
 page 597 
Anoplodactylus  
 sea spider 


Chapter 19. Crustacea, page 605 
Anostraca, page 617 
Artemia
 brine shrimp   
Phyllopoda
 , page 619 
Triops tadpole shrimp 
Daphnia 
water flea 
Malacostraca,
 page 625 
Nebalia   
Farfantepenaeus  
 brown shrimp 
Procambarus crayfish
 
Homarus 
American lobster 
Callinectes   
 blue crab    
Armadillidium 
pillbug 
Ligia 
sea slater   
Caecidotea 
freshwater isopod 
Crangonyx freshwater amphipod
 
Cirripedia
 , page 678 
Pollicipes  and Lepas
 goose barnacles 
Balanus 
acorn barnacle 
 


Chapter 20. Myriapoda, page 702 
Chilopoda, page 703 
Scutigera 
house centipede 

Diplopoda, page 711 
Pachydesmus 
flat-backed millipede
 
Narceus   worm millipede


Chapter 21. Hexapoda, page 723 
Collembola 
Collembola 
springtail 

Orthoptera 
Acheta  
 house cricket
 
Romalea lubber grasshopper 

Blattaria

Periplaneta cockroach 

Hemiptera  
Tibicen 
cicada adult and nymph 

Coleoptera 
Popillia 
Japanese beetle adult 
Cyclocephala white grubs
 

Lepidoptera 
Calpodes 
canna leafroller caterpillar 
Ceratomia 
catalpa caterpillar 
Papilio 
carrot caterpillar 

Siphonaptera 
Ctenocephalides 
flea


Chapter 22. Cycloneuralia, page 752 
Nematoda, page 757 
Ascaris 
Pig roundworm 
Cephalobus soil roundworm


Chapter 23. Gnathifera, page 784 
Rotifera, page 789 
Philodina benthic rotifer 
Bdelloidea 
moss rotifers


Chapter 25. Lophophorata, page 816 
Phoronida page 817 
Phoronis  
 phoronid 

Brachiopoda, page 821 
Lingula 
inarticulate brachiopod 
Terebratella 
articulate brachiopod 

Bryozoa, page 829 
Plumatella 
freshwater bryozoan  
Zoobotryon ctenostome bryozoan   
Bugula  
 cheilostome bryozoan


Chapter 27. Hemichordata, page 857 
Enteropneusta, page 858 
Saccoglossus  
 acorn worm


Chapter 28. Echinodermata, page 872 
Asteroidea, page 876 
Asterias 
sea star 
Ophiuroidea,
 page 890 
Ophioderma 
brittle star 
Echinoidea,
 page 896 
Strongylocentrotus 
sea urchin 
Clypeaster 
sea biscuit 
Mellita 
sand dollar 
Holothuroidea,
 page 909 
Cucumaria  
 sea cucumber 
Sclerodactyla with notes on Cucumaria, sea cucumber
 

Crinoidea, page 917 
Comactinia 
feather star


Chapter 29. Chordata, page 930 
Urochordata,
 page 940 
Ciona sea squirt     
Molgula  
 sea squirt 
Ecteinascidia compound sea squirt
   
Botryllus compound sea squirt 
Doliolum thalacean tunicate
 
Cephalochordata,
 page 932 
Branchiostoma amphioxus 

Vertebrata  
Ammocoetes larva,
 lamprey eel
  
Notropis minnow